G.Sumalatha1 and P. Anil Kumar2
In this paper we have reviewed application of energy aware routing protocols like LEACH, LEACH-C, PEGASIS, BCDCP, ENPC-NPSO, ANPC etc In WSN sensors are randomly deployed in the sensor field which brings the coverage problem. Hence energy and coverage problem are very scarce resources for such sensor systems and has to be managed wisely in order to extend the life of the sensors and maximizing coverage for the duration of a particular mission. In past a lot of cluster based algorithm and techniques were used. In this paper we also find out all type of PSO based algorithm, their application and limitation over present techniques to overcome the problems of low energy and coverage of sensor range.
H. B. Basanth Kumar
Multimedia security is extremely significant concern for the internet technology because of the ease of the duplication, distribution and manipulation of the multimedia data. The digital watermarking is a field of information hiding which hide the crucial information in the original data for protection illegal duplication and distribution of multimedia data. The image watermarking techniques may divide on the basis of domain like spatial domain or transform domain or on the basis of wavelets. The spatial domain techniques directly work on the pixels and the frequency domain works on the transform coefficients of the image. This paper presents classification of watermarking, stages in watermarking, watermarking approaches and its applications.
Prakash R. Kolhe and Pradip P. Kolhe
Henry David said “Men Have Become the Tools of Their Tools.” In this era all the developing technology begin from calculation influenced by the computer programming ICT-tool. Today energy is main problem, by utilizing sun light energy(solar energy) problem can be minimize. Sun drying is still the most common method used to preserve agricultural products in most tropical and subtropical countries. However, being unprotected from rain, wind-borne dirt and dust, infestation by insects, rodents and other animal, products may be seriously degraded to the extent that sometimes become inedible and the resulted loss of food quality in the dried products may have adverse economic effects on domestics and international markets. The conditions in tropical countries make the use of solar energy for drying food practically attractive and environmentally sound. Dryers have been developed and used to dry agricultural products in order to improve shelf life. Solar drying facilities are economical for small holders, especially under favourable meteorological conditions.
This paper discuss to design to calculate design of solar dryer. In this different parameters are determined i.e Moisture removed, Water activity, Equilibrium Relative humidity, Total Heat Needed, Enthalpy, Average Drying rate, Drying time, Collector area, Length of air vent, Velocity required. The calculator was developed using C language Version 3.0 Turbo c++ copyright (c)1990, 1992 by Borland International was developed.
Israa Hadi and Saad Taleb Hasson
This paper aims to develop new techniques to construct a graph structure to represent
the relation between the objects in movie film. The main approach includes a mechanism for
many steps, first step is the Data Base Construction , which create a table consist record for
each frame, and each record contain entities such as area, Perimeter, and other parameters.
The second step is to calculate the number of features for any object in each frame depending
on the parameters in the data base. While the third step constructs a graph structure that
represent a base on the features of the objects.
Fakhrosadat Fanian1 and Marjankuchaki Rafsanjani2
Directed routing protocols, one of them is data centre protocol are the main proposed
methods in improving exploration quality of sensor networks. In these protocols, routing data
stored within networknodes locally. Therefore, there isn’t universal data about routes; one of
these protocols is sensor protocol for information via negotiation (SPIN), in this article it was
attempts to solve lack of receiving data by remote nodes from origin in case of non-request
from nearer nodes to origin in this protocol using clustering process. In the other hand, it was
attempt to prevent routing among origin and receiver nodes separately in this protocol that
cause waste of major parts of network resources and by delivering this algorithm led to improve
performance and efficacy and also increase life time of network and bearing of this protocol
against error because of rotating cluster heads roles.